夏休み企画・英語編、今日は「書換え問題」の特集です。
公立高校の入試問題ではあまり出題されません(大阪府公立高校入試では、まず出ません)。私立高校入試には必ず出題され、配点も高い分野です。
数学や理科のように、公式化して覚えておくべきだと思います。

書換え問題の公式

-毎年よく出題される問題-

(1)~がある There are ~~have(has)

There are seven days in a week.
A week has seven days.

(2)雨が(雪が)降る It rains(snows)We have rain(snow)

It snows a lot here.
We have much snow here.


(3)とても~だから~できない so…that…can'ttoo…to…

She was so young that she couldn't go to school.
She was too young to go to school.

(4)willを使うとcan → be able tomust→have to1つの文に助動詞は1つだけ

She can play the piano very well.
(willを加えて未来形にすると)She will be able to play the piano very well.

(5)~ほど~ではない not as…as比較級(~er)

Mike isn't as tall as Jane.
Jane is taller than Mike.=Mike is shorter(smallerthan Jane.


(6)他の~よりも~だ 最上級比較級(~er)+than any other + 単数形

Mt.Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan.
Mt.Fuji is higher than any other mountain in Japan.


(7)まだ~ still(まだ)を含んだ文=現在完了形(have+過去分詞)+since,for

He came to Japan three years ago.He is still in Japan.
He has been in Japan for three years.


(8)まったく~ない not(~n't)anyno

There weren't any children in the park.
There were no children in the park.


(9)~してはいけない You must not(You mustn't)=Don't

You mustn't be late tomorrow morning.
Don't be late tomorrow morning.


-最近よく出題される問題-

(1)~しなさい、そうすれば(そうしないと) 命令文,and(or)If

Study hard, and you will pass the examination(test).
If you study hard,you will pass the examination.


(2)~することは~だ ~ing is easy(difficult, important, necessary, fun)=It is…(for…)to…

Studying mathematics is difficult for me.
It is difficult for me to study mathematics.


(3)~しましょう Let'sShall weHow about~ingWhy don't we~

Let's go shopping,shall we
How about going shopping?

Why don't we go shopping

(4)~が好きだ like(to…)=be fond of(~ing)

Ken likes to listen to the radio.
Ken is fond of listening to the radio.


(5)~が得意だ can…wellbe good at(~ing)

He can speak English well.
He is good at speaking English.


(6)今までこんな…~したことがない I have never 過去分詞 such a…最上級…that I have ever 過去分詞

I have never eaten such a big apple.
This is the biggest apple that I have ever eaten.


(7)受動態を使った書き換え

What language do they speak in New Zealand?
What language is spoken in New Zealand?


(8)どう~するべきか 疑問詞(how,what,where…)…shouldhow to, what to, Where to…

Do you know how you should ski?
Do you know how to ski?


(9)とても…だから~だ  so…that~~enough to…

He was so rich that he could buy a car.
He was rich enough to buy a car.


(10)~だけれども  ~,but…Though~,…

He is rich, but he isn't happy.
Though he is rich, he isn't happy.


(11)~する必要はない(~しなくてもよい)don't have toneed notIt isn't necessary

You don't have to clean this room.
You need not clean this room.
It isn't necessary for you to clean this room.


(12)分詞関係代名詞+be動詞+分詞

Do you know the boy running in the park?
Do you know the boy who is running in the park?


(13)~に興味がある  be interested inbe interesting to

I am interested in music.
Music is interesting to me.



教科書には出てこないが知っておいたほうがよい書換え2つ

(1)関係代名詞を使った書き換え

Do you know the girl who has long hair?
Do you know the girl whose hair is long?

=前置詞withを使って Do you know the girl with long hair?

(2)感嘆文 How 副詞+主語+一般動詞!=What a 形容詞 名詞+主語+be動詞!

How well she can sing(彼女はなんと上手に歌えるのでしょう!)
What a good singer she is(彼女はなんと上手な歌い手なのでしょう!)


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